Truro Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term which includes a large variety of pathological conditions that affect the organs and tissues which make the gas exchange possible. The conditions which fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, comprise issues with the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, pleura, pleural cavity, alveoli in addition to the nerves and muscles which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions such as pulmonary embolism, bacterial pneumonia and lung cancer.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, while those specializing physicians in this field are called a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this area can likewise be referred to as: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
Respiratory diseases can be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the organ or tissue involved or by the pattern and type of related signs and symptoms, or by the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, which consists of emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
Allergic responses are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is caused by the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods may comprise radish, lemon, sea foods like some fatty fish and prawns, bananas, peanuts, pomegranates, ice creams and dairy, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Weather conditions could also affect some people as sandy and dusty weather conditions during summer may make the air quality poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways including the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it harder to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases cause increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whichever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract certain organs could include pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection typically caused by bacteria, usually Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the globe. Various viruses and fungi could cause pneumonia also, like for example acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of emphysema and mesothelioma. A build up of fluid in the pleural cavity is referred to as a pleural effusion. This can be due to conditions such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may likewise happen from pleura inflammation, TB, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and permits air inside the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is known as a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses similar to a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe type of this where the air could not escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the heart and blood vessels, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary flow are referred to as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Several examples comprise: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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