Allergy Testing Truro - The term asthma comes from the Greek language and means "panting." It is a chronic inflammatory sickness of the airways. Asthma is characterized by recurring and variable signs, consisting of bronchospasm and reversible airflow obstruction. Indications of asthma consist of: wheezing, chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath. Asthma is clinically classified depending upon the frequency of symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second. Asthma may be further categorized as extrinsic or atopic or intrinsic or non-atopic.
The condition of asthma is triggered by several genetic and environmental elements or combination there of. Acute symptoms are often treated by using an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist like for instance salbutamol. Those who suffer from asthma try to avoid triggers consisting of irritants and allergens. Those who suffer from asthma often find relief by inhaling corticosteroids. Treatments utilizing Leukotriene antagonists are less helpful than corticosteroids are usually less preferred.
The diagnosis is generally made based on the pattern of symptoms as well as the response to therapy over time. There has been a significant increase in asthma ever since the 1970s. Based on statistics of 2010, throughout the world, over 300 million people are affected worldwide and 250,000 asthma deaths were recorded in the year 2009. The prognosis for asthma is generally good because of the ability to proper handle this particular condition with therapy.
The classification of asthma is based upon its severity in individuals, the frequency of symptoms, if the signs happen at night, predicted percent of FEV1 and FEV1 variability, how often and intermittent the attacks take place. The asthma may be considered mild persistent if the attacks take place less than 2 times per week and not daily. For example, if they occur 3 to 4 times per month. Another category will be moderate persistent. These attacks could occur once a week but not every night. Daily attacks are considered to be severe persistent taking place usually 7 times in a week, perhaps several times a day.
Now, there is no concise method for classifying different subgroups of asthma, even though the condition is classified based on severity as listed above. Cases of asthma respond to different treatments. There is still much research ongoing to find ways to classify subgroups and what treatments respond well.
Asthma is not considered part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even if it is a chronic obstructive condition. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and emphysema are examples of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease since this is irreversible. In asthma, the airway obstruction is reversible, however, if not treated, the chronic lung inflammation during asthma could become an irreversible obstruction due to airway remodeling. Asthma even affects the bronchi and not the alveoli as in emphysema.
Asthma attacks are normally defined as an acute asthma exacerbation. Indications of an asthma attack consists of: wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath, though several people present mainly with coughing. In several cases, are motion may be impaired so greatly that no wheezing is heard. During an attack, there may be a paradoxical pulse, that refers to a pulse that is stronger during exhalation and weaker during inhalation. The individual may have a blue tinge to their skin and nails resulting from lack of oxygen. Some muscles in the neck like for example the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles may become more pronounced as the person struggles for air.
In a mild exacerbation the peak expiratory flow rate or PEFR is =200 L/min or =50% of the predicted best. Moderate is defined as between 80 and 200 L/min or twenty five percent and fifty percent of the predicted best whereas severe is defined as = 80 L/min or =25% of the predicted best.
Amongst top athletes, asthma may be exercise induced. In the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, a survey of the athletes showed that 15 percent of athletes had asthma and 10% were on asthma medication. The most common sports which have a high occurrence of asthma comprise mountain biking, cycling and long-distance running. Diving and weight-lifting show a fairly lower incidence. There has been proof suggesting inadequate levels of vitamin D are associated with serious asthma attacks. Most commonly, asthma induced by exercise is treated effectively with the use of a short-acting beta2 agonist.
Lots of people suffer from asthma as because of things they are exposed to at their workplace. This is reported as occupational respiratory disease. Most of cases of occupational asthma are not reported or recognized as such. The highest percentage of cases occurred during fabricators and labourers, followed by professional and managerial specialists as well as individuals in sales, administrative support and technical jobs. Nearly all of these cases of asthma were in the services and manufacturing industries. Some reactive chemicals are usually associated with work-related asthma as well as things like animal proteins, enzymes, natural rubber latex and flour. One study reported that 15 to 23 percent of new onset asthma cases which happened in adults are related to work.
Asthma is caused by genetic and environmental factors. These issues influence how severe the asthma is as well as how it responds to medication. There have been researches showing associated illnesses such as eczema and hay fever are associated. The strongest risk factor for developing asthma is a history of atopic disease. The more allergens an individual reacts to on a skin test, the higher the chances of them having asthma.
Much allergic asthma is associated with sensitivity to indoor allergens. In the West, our normal housing styles also allow greater exposure to indoor allergens. There have been mixed findings to the prevention studies aimed at the aggressive reduction of airborne allergens inside a home with infants. For instance, strict dust mite restriction has lessened the risk of allergic sensitization to dust mites and somewhat reduces the chance of developing asthma until the age of 8. Although, similar studies with exposure to dog and cat allergies have shown that exposure during the first year of existence was found to reduce the risk of allergic sensitization and of developing asthma later in life.
There have been researches within the United Kingdom and the United States exploring the association between obesity and the development of asthma. Various elements connected with obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. For example, due to a build-up of adipose or fatty tissue, a decreased respiratory function could arise. This could be partly because adipose tissue contributes to a pro-inflammatory condition and this has been linked with non-eosinophilic asthma. Adult onset asthma has also been related with periocular xanthogranulomas and Churg-Strauss syndrome.
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